Bunions Causes And Treatments


Overview
Bunions
Bunions are bony protrusions located at the base of the big toe that develop when the toe is slanted inward or overlaps the next toe. They can be very painful. Bunions form when the movement of the big toe influences the angle of the bones in the foot. The changes gradually develop into the characteristic bump, which over time becomes more and more noticeable.

Causes
Shoes with narrow toes can trigger a bunion, but they?re not the underlying cause. Bunions run in families, because foot type (shape and structure) is hereditary, and some types are more prone to bunions than others. Low arches, flat feet, and loose joints and tendons all increase the risk. The shape of the metatarsal head (the top of the first metatarsal bone) also makes a difference: if it?s too round, the joint is less stable and more likely to deform when squeezed into shoes with narrow toes.
SymptomsPatients complain of a cosmetically deformed foot, along with some skin changes which occur due to constant irritation. Pain and redness of the joint may also occur. Footwear can be difficult to fit due to the deformity and pain is often exacerbated with physical activity. Some patients may experience pain and difficulty with simple walking.

Diagnosis
Before examining your foot, the doctor will ask you about the types of shoes you wear and how often you wear them. He or she also will ask if anyone else in your family has had bunions or if you have had any previous injury to the foot. In most cases, your doctor can diagnose a bunion just by examining your foot. During this exam, you will be asked to move your big toe up and down to see if you can move it as much as you should be able to. The doctor also will look for signs of redness and swelling and ask if the area is painful. Your doctor may want to order X-rays of the foot to check for other causes of pain, to determine whether there is significant arthritis and to see if the bones are aligned properly.

Non Surgical Treatment
Podiatrists will treat bunions conservatively, using paddings and orthotics, which are devices that are made to protect the joint or deviate pressure away from it. Sometimes bunions will develop overlying callus or corns. These can be removed by a podiatrist, but if the area is irritated again by wearing ill-fitting footwear, the corn will grow back. Most people with this condition have flat feet, so arch supports are often recommended.
Bunions Hard Skin

Surgical Treatment
Many studies have found that 85 to 90 percent of patients who undergo bunion surgery are satisfied with the results. Fewer than 10 percent of patients experience complications from bunion surgery. Possible complications can include infection, recurrence of the bunion, nerve damage, and continued pain. If complications occur, they are treatable but may affect the extent of your full recovery.

Prevention
To minimize the chance of developing bunions, never force your feet into shoes that don?t fit. Choose a shoe that conforms to the shape of your foot. Opt for shoes with wider insteps, broad toes, and soft soles. Shoes that are short, tight, or sharply pointed should be avoided.

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